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As a step to follow the high quality and success of Emerald, Business & Management Quarterly Review (BMQR) follows the standards of Emerald journals for paper submission guidelines, which are;

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1. Articles should be between 4000-6000 words in length
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5. Tables should be typed and included as part of the manuscript. They should not be submitted as graphic elements. 6. References to other publications must be in Harvard style and carefully checked for completeness, accuracy and consistency.

You should cite publications in the text: (Noraini, 2008) using the first named authors' name or (Noraini and Ahmad, 2009) citing both names of two, or (Noraini et al., 2009) where there are three or more authors. At the end of the paper a reference list in alphabetical order should be supplied:

For books, e.g. Zakaria, H. (2009), Business Management, University Publication Centre, Selangor.

For journals, e.g. Zakaria, H. and Karem, A. (2007), "Intranet usage in port industry", Business & Management Quarterly Review, Vol. 12 No. 3, pp. 67-88.

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Copyright (c) 2010 by Community of Research (CoRe)-Management Science (MS) and Faculty of Business Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission, in writing, from the publisher.

Business & Management Quarterly Review (BMQR) is jointly published by Community of Research (CoRe)-Management Science (MS) and Faculty of Business Management (FBM), Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

The views and opinion expressed therein and those of the individual authors and the publication of these statements in the Business & Management Quarterly Review (BMQR) do not imply endorsement by the publisher or the editorial staff

Tuesday, December 7, 2010

No.2, Vol. 3, 2011

Article 1: Indentifying the link between tourism and internationalisation of education: The case of North-East Asian countries and New Zealand
By: Ershad Ali and Geetha Subramaniam

This paper examines whether there exists any link between the growth of tourism and internationalisation of education by focussing on tourists from the North-East Asian countries (NEAC) to New Zealand. A positive trend has been noted on tourism movement from North East Asian countries to New Zealand during the past decade. However, the export education sector is not as strong at this stage to meet the competitive countries‟ marketing ventures and these calls for new tourism/trade type policies and strategies to further improve the export market for education. Tourism growth from NEAC seems to be steady and continuous whereas the export education sector seems to be unsustainable at times and lacks the marketing edge of the tourism industry.
Keywords: Internationalisation of education, tourism, North East Asia

Article 2: An exploratory study of the matching problems among game theoretically coordinating parties in a virtual organisation
By: Muhammad Yasir, Abdul Majid and Iftikhar Ahmad

Virtual organization is a temporary network of independent parties to exploit the emerging market opportunities. It has several defining characteristics among which coordination is of particular importance. Coordination among parties is required to ensure the efficient and effective accomplishment of tasks in a virtual organization. This research suggests that the approaches of Game theory in which each strategy of a player represents the best response to the others‟ strategies could be applied to model the coordination among parties in a virtual organization. Matching problems could arise among parties while maintaining a virtual relationship. This study aims at exploring the possibilities of game theoretic modeling of relationship among parties in a virtual organization. Potential matching problems arising out of a virtual relationship have also been discussed in this study.
Keywords: Virtual organization, game theory, matching problems, coordination

Article 3: Market orientation, financial management and business performance: exploring the relationships in financial sector
By: Boo Ho Voon, Jipiu Marjorie, and Karen Kueh

The purpose of this research is to examine the relationships between market orientation, financial management and business performance with data from a financial institution in Malaysia. The research fulfils a need for more studies of market orientation in the financial sector of developing countries. It utilises a market orientation scale which incorporates service oriented elements, thus being more relevant to service industries such as banks. Market orientation is measured from the employee‟s perspective in contrast to prior studies which utilise management perceptions. Structured questionnaires were used to capture employees‟ perceptions of market orientation, financial management and business performance for the selected institution. The relationships were tested using regression analysis. The results show that market orientation has a significantly positive relationship with both non-financial and financial performance. Financial management moderates the market orientation-business performance relationship.
Keywords: Market orientation, business performance, financial management, banking, Malaysia.

Article 4: Entrepreneurial intentions among university students
By: Chin Tee Suan, Yeow Jian Ai, Kavitha Raman, Koe Wei Loon and Joenathan Tanumihardja

The purpose of this study is to examine the entrepreneurial intentions among university students. The study examines the personality traits, family and individual background, education and experience and also perceived desirability. A total of 200 university students took part in this study. It was found that personality traits such as locus of control and the need for achievement had a stronger correlation in comparison with other elements such as education. The background of the student plays an important role as well. Where of the parents is involved in business, the student will be influence by it.
Keywords: Entrepreneurship, intentions, motivations, sustainability, business schools, personality trait

Article 5: Acceptance of technology and its relationship with computer anxiety
By: Maimunah Mohd Shah, Roshidi Hassan, Roslani Embi and Ahmad Mazli Muhammad

This study was conducted to find out the relationship between acceptance of technological changes and computer anxiety among commercial bank employees. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) developed by Fred Davis in 1989 was used to measure the level of acceptance of technology use. This instrument has been widely used by many researchers as reported in the literature. Simple random sampling technique was used to select participants to answer the questionnaires. Three hundred and thirty-tree participants from ten commercial banks responded the questionnaires. Only 319 were usable and were analyzed. The results reveal positive acceptance of the various computer applications used by the employees. T-tests conducted on gender, non-executive, executive and age revealed mixed results. Interestingly, the correlation results among the variables showed small to high negative relationships. Using a stepwise multiple regression, the results revealed two variables as indicators toward experiencing computer anxiety among employees in commercial banks.
Keywords: Technology Acceptance Model, computer skills, computer knowledge, attitude toward computer, computer anxiety.

Article 6: The role of microfinance in development of micro enterprises in Malaysia
By: Jasman Tuyon, S.Junaidi S.Mohammad, and Rosalan Ali

Micro enterprises play an important role is socio-economic development in Malaysia. Acknowledging this, development of micro enterprises has been a key strategy of the government’s to help ensure an equitable and balanced economic growth since the formation of the New Economic Policy (NEP) in 1971 and still been maintained as a key development area under the New Economic Model (NEM), 2010. However, despite various financial assistance offered by the government and Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) supports on micro enterprises financing, the critical issues of shortage of capital and limited access to commercial bank financing still prevail. This posted a question on the effectiveness of the previous enterprises financing policy. Specifically, this research paper is looking into the innovation and roles of non-bank and bank Microfinance institutions (MFIs) in provision of micro credit to support the development of micro enterprises in Malaysia. Both of this MFIs category is approaching the same market segments but on a different operational approaches and lending criteria.
Keywords: Microfinance, micro enterprises, entrepreneurial financing, Malaysia

Article 7: Investigating critical success factors of value chain in health tourism industry in Malaysia
By: Noorainie Saadiah Mohd Salleh, Syed Jamal Abdul Nasir Syed Mohamad, Siti Syairah Taib

This paper articulates the function of Malaysia Healthcare Travel Council (MHTC) in developing the Health Tourism Industry. Focus was given in identifying the challenges faced by MHTC, understanding the competitiveness of the industry and proposing a suitable value chain framework for the industry. Total of 12 organizations have been identified, which were including private and public organizations. Conclusions of findings have been derived and few recommendations made at the end of this article.
Keywords: Health tourism, medical tourism, competitive, leisure services and value chain

Article 8: Impact of ERP system on productivity improvement: Some empirical findings
By: Zaini Zainol and Zaitun Abu Bakar

The aim of this study is to investigate whether enterprise resource planning (ERP) investment brought productivity improvement to the organization as promised by the system provider. We used three productivity indicators adopted from the Malaysia Productivity Corporation. These indicators are competitiveness indicator, labour productivity indicator and capital productivity indicator. A total of four manufacturing companies were selected. These companies have been using ERP based systems for a minimum three years. Our findings showed mixed results. Of the three indicators, the labour productivity indicator had shown positive contribution whereas the remaining two indicators i.e. competitiveness and capital productivity had resulted in negative feedback. Generally, these indicators seem to show that the increase in labour cost was greater than the increase in the value-added created as a result of adopting an ERP system.
Keywords: ERP, productivity, competitiveness, benefits

Article 9: Public acceptance towards Kelantan gold dinar
By: Nik Maheran Nik Muhammad

This research was conducted in objective to identify the factors that influence public acceptance towards Kelantan gold dinar. For this purpose, survey to 220 respondents who bought Kelantan gold dinar at ar-rahnu (Kelantan gold dinar distribution centre) using purposive sampling method was conducted. Out of those, 100 questionnaires were received and usable. The data was then analyzed using SPSS statistical tool via frequency analysis, factor analysis, reliability test and descriptive analysis. From factor analysis it was found that there were four factors namely economic, political, investment and social factors that influenced the public acceptance towards Kelantan gold dinar. Descriptive analysis on the other hand found that an economic factor was the most influential factors followed by social, political and investment factor. The present study is descriptive in nature thus for future research, prescriptive research is recommended so that it can determine how gold dinar influences the economic stability. Future research could also be investigated focusing on the effectiveness of the gold dinar investment strategy and their implementation to increase economic stability.
Keywords: Gold Dinar, fiat money, Islamic investment.

Article 10: Can customer experiance build loyalty? A paradigm in the food retail context
By Evagelos D. Lioutas, Georgia Lavranou, Irini Tzimitra-Kalogianni and Efthimia Tsakiridou

This study is focused on developing a model to explain relationships between customers‟ satisfaction with their experience as food retail stores shoppers and their loyalty towards these stores. Hence, two types of experiences were examined. Experience formed as the output of consumer‟s interaction with the material or physical elements of the retail store was defined as “instrumental experience”, while the term “emotional experience” was used to describe the emotional responses caused from this experience. Results indicate that, while none of the studied customer‟s personal characteristics - except gender - affects loyalty, both types of experience are strong predictors of loyalty that customers show towards food retail stores. The research findings, managerial implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.
Keywords: Customer experience, loyalty, emotional experience, customer satisfaction, food retail stores

Article 11: Gold as a safet portfolio investment
By: Dziauddin Sharif, Siti Sarah Abdul Jabar, Suhaida Mohd Amin and Mohd Faizal P.Rameli

The aim of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship of gold price with US Dollar, Malaysian CPI and KLCI to ultimately show how gold could be a good and safer investment for investors. It gives guidelines and clear view for investors to make the right decision in investment. By understanding those relationships, some answers to the investors on some advantages that they might gain will be provided, so that, they could reduce the risk in their portfolio. Moreover, with the current economic situation slowing down, and the return on other investment like stocks are bearish, the potential of gold that could serve the alternative is much better.
Keywords: Gold, investment, financial market indicator

Article 12: Impact of motivation to learn, organisational commitment and job satisfaction on organisational learning culture
By: Ali Usman, Muhammad Mudassar Ghafoor and Ridwan Qaiser Danish

The objective of this study is to investigate how of job satisfaction, organizational commitment and motivation to learn impact the universities learning culture. For this purpose, 210 questionnaires were distributed among lecturers, assistant professors, associate professors and professors of 12 public and privately owned universities out of which 186 questionnaires were returned at a response rate of 88%. The results showed that motivation to learn, organizational commitment and job satisfaction have significant positive impact on organizational learning culture in education sector. The policy implications, limitations and future guidelines of the study have also been discussed.
Keywords: Learning culture, motivation, job satisfaction, organizational commitment

Article 13: Validity test of customer relationship management performances: A case of ICT companies in Malaysia
By: Hadi Nejati, Shishi Kumar Piaralal, and Abdul Manaf Bohari

Organizations can create new ideas and provide improved and new services by help of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) performance. The CRM performance as an integral element could help organizations to tailor their products and services and even the entire relationship with customers to increase customer satisfaction and finally economic profitability. This paper seeks to examine and validate the construct of CRM performance among ICT companies in Malaysia. Using simple random sampling method, a total of 201 questionnaires completed. 2nd order technique of structural equation modeling using AMOS version 18 performed on the data and produces four underlying components to confirm the construct validity of CRM performance. The positive link between CRM performance and the constructs on past research, this study confirmed financial, customer, internal process and innovation perspective as latent constructs of CRM performance.
Keyword: Validity Test, CRM Performance, Structural Equation Modeling

Article 14: Emotional intelligence and career role effectiveness in service organisations: The moderating effect of emotional labor
By: Abdul Kadir Othman, Hazman Shah Abdullah and Jasmine Ahmad

Emotional Intelligence (EI) is expected to assist service providers achieving Career Role effectiveness. Studies have started to demonstrate, even though the evidence is still mixed, the potential advantages of EI for service providers. The purpose of this paper is to determine the moderating effect of Emotional Labor on the relationship between EI factors (Self-emotion Appraisal, Others-emotion Appraisal, Regulation of Emotion, and Use of Emotion) and Career Role effectiveness. Analyses of 167 responses revealed that the interaction between Emotional Labor and Self-Emotion Appraisal was significant to affect Career Role effectiveness. The findings highlight the importance of EI in low Emotional Labor work to enhance service providers‟ Career Role effectiveness. Implications for managerial practices and future research are discussed.
Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, emotional labor, career role effectiveness

Article 15: The impact of exchange rate misalignment on disaggregated manufacturing and agriculture esports in Malaysia
By: Noor Zahirah Mohd Sidek

This paper attempts to examine the impact of exchange rate misalignment on exports at disaggregated level. First the data is aggregated into 2 sub-categories – agriculture and manufacturing exports. Second, analyses are performed on disaggregated exports at 2-digit SITC. We rely on the conventional cointegration and vector error correction specifications to establish and estimate long run relationships. Results suggest that the impact of misalignment is negative and significant with the effect being more pronounced in the manufacturing sector compared to the agriculture sector. At 2-digit SITC, forty-two out of fifty-six (or 75%) sub-sectors experienced negative effects of misalignment. The magnitude of misalignment at 2-digit SITC is much larger compared to the aggregated estimations which suggests that the process of aggregation has diluted the impact of misalignment. It is suggestive that misalignment presents risks which would undermine export competitiveness in the long run. Therefore, policymakers should always align the real exchange rate to its fundamentals.
Keywords: Exchange rate misalignment, disaggregated exports, Malaysia

Article 16: Enviromental regulatory pressure-A qualitative study on the Malaysian palm oil industry
By: Mohd Rafi Yaacob

The main objective of this study is to investigate how and to what extent regulatory departments impose pressure on the industry to more environmentally responsible. Data of this paper were based from face to face interviews with three senior officers from the DOE and a senior enforcement officer from the Sabah Environmental Protection Department (SEPD). From the qualitative analysis it seemed clear that using its coercive power the regulatory stakeholders have exerted significant influenced on the industry to be more environmentally conscious. Nonetheless, this study also showed there were a number of challenges faced by regulatory departments which had diluted their power to exert power on the industry. Some recommendations to increase corporate environmentalism in the industry were also included at the end of this paper.
Keywords: Malaysian palm oil industry, regulatory pressure, environmental issues

Article 17: Job characteristics and job satisfaction: A relationship study on supervisors performance
By: Noor Azzah Said and Rudzi Munap

This study attempted to examine the relationship of job characteristics on job satisfaction of the middle level managers. The findings indicated there is a relationship in all the five dimensions of the job characteristics model to job satisfaction of the middle level managers. It was found that job feedback (r = 0.825) has the strongest relationship with job satisfaction. The findings further reported that job description has the highest mean rating towards job satisfaction with a value of 3.94.
Keywords: Job characteristics, job satisfaction, middle level managers, supervisor performance

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